I was delighted to receive in the mail today the book entitled Introduction to Biblical Studies by Steve Moyise (professor of biblical studies at the University of Chichester, UK). This is the third edition (2013), but I will simply treat it as a new book for those who have never heard of it before. This book is written for non-specialists, an introduction for general readers that summarizes the study of the Bible among scholars. It is a wonderful overview being only 152 pages before about 25 pages of appendices.
This is an excellent introduction to the topic for people who have never before surveyed this area. There are nine chapters including:
- God in the Bible
- Historical approaches: the search for sources
- Historical approaches: the search for context
- Historical approaches the search for intentions
- Historical approaches: the text of the Bible
- Literary approaches: how do texts affect readers?
- The role of readers: gender, ethnicity and social location
- The role of readers: reading against the grain
- Theological approaches
Moyise writes so that anyone can understand. Although he could certainly be criticized for leaving vast amounts of material unrehearsed, his intent is to give a survey of Biblical studies among scholars from the vantage point of someone in a U2 spy plane at the height of about 70,000 feet. In that respect this is an excellent introduction.
The advantage of such a book it is in bringing perspective. This can help someone, for example, who has been introduced to a number of Biblical scholars (say, through commentaries or the like), but do not understand how they fit into the larger picture of Biblical scholarship. It can help such readers to make sense out of the lay of the land. It can also help readers who have never been exposed to this discipline, and who may only have read the Bible through their church traditions or personal habits. Such a book can help to make people aware of larger issues in reading sacred literature.
On the other hand, reading this book will not give anyone a new skill. For example, you will read about redaction criticism, or form criticism, or historical criticism, or feminist readings of scripture, but you will not become proficient in any sense in any of these disciplines. This could of course simply add to the confusion of some readers who may feel overwhelmed by the variety of types of reading found among Biblical scholars, and no doubt some already entrenched readers might simply dismiss such a variety in favor of the simpler approach that they have either been taught or have practiced most of their lives. However, the purpose of the book is actually to help those people to be able to broaden their understanding and to make sense out of such a variety. In effect, it should say to them: “You are not the only one who reads the Bible; there is a vast community of people doing that, some of whom have spent their lives in doing so. It will help you if you read in conversation with such people.”
In each of the chapters, Moyise briefly lays out the parameters of the issues involved, and he talks about those parameters from the standpoint both of conservative scholars and those not so conservative. He makes an attempt to be as objective as possible in the presentation without showing particular favoritism. He not only offers summaries of such approaches, but he also gives specific examples to illustrate his points. Most of the examples he chooses are exceptionally well laid out, and they go a long way for illustrating the point he is trying to make. He does not hide from controversial issues, nor does he try to force them.
For example on page 57 he states:
The disappointing conclusion is that apart from the early letters of Paul (49-55 CE) and perhaps the Gospels of Mark (65-68 CE) and John (c. 95 CE), there is very little consensus concerning the rest of the New Testament. In general, scholars tend to be either “early daters” or “late daters”, though some are content to outline the main options without coming down on a particular side.
He then offers a brief summary of the dating of New Testament documents showing the variety side-by-side in a helpful chart. If nothing else, this should say to readers that we are probably wise in guarding against being too dogmatic about such things.
Moyise deals with both Old Testament and New Testament topics, and he gives illustrations from both. Although he is certainly interested in showing a variety of scholarship that exists, he is careful to illustrate his points by using specific texts and shows the implications of interpretation rather than simply trying to champion one scholar over another. In other words, this is more about understanding the Bible that it is making sure you know who’s who in scholarship.
The last several chapters of the book deal specifically with readers and understanding processes. The chapter titles show the topics, but one example will be given for interpreting the letters of Paul. I offer this because at the time of this writing in our Coffee with Paul studies we are working through the letter of Galatians. So this is appropriate to our discussions.
The question is about the interpretation of Galatians 2:16 and Romans 4:5 (which talk about justification by faith), as contrasted with statements by Paul found in Romans 2:6, 7, and 13 (which connect “righteousness” with “doers of the law”). About this Moyise states on p 116:
Generally speaking, protestant have taken Galatians 2:16/Romans 4:5 as expressing what Paul “really” means and have attempted to explain (away) passages like Romans 2. But taking the lead from [E. P.] Sanders, scholars from the so-called “new perspective” have tried to integrate them. The most important point is that Paul’s “faith and works” contrast is only prominent in Galatians and Romans, where the issue under discussion is whether gentile Christians are obliged to take up the Jewish law. Paul is not accusing his ancestral faith of legalism. He is attacking Christians who are trying to force the Gentile converts to take up the law. Even Peter appears to be implicated in this.
This is not presented as the one true and final answer on the topic, but as how Sanders and others in the “new perspective on Paul” address the topic. Moyise is very consistent in providing a fair summary of the parameters of such discussions.
I highly recommend this book for all readers who would like to have a better perspective of how their commentaries and Bible translations might fit into the larger discussion of how the Bible is being approached by Biblical scholars. Even more than that, I recommend this book as a way for readers to expand their own horizons to see Biblical scholars as conversation partners in the quest that we all have for understanding the Bible. This is not simply an academic verses a practical approach to the Bible. This is really about how we understand the Bible and how we should go about reading the Bible and applying it to our situations today. Realizing that Biblical scholars can be used as conversation partners can help all of us to think through issues that affect the way we read and apply the Bibles to our everyday lives.
The bottom line is, this is a very practical book and I highly recommend it.