I love it when somebody “calls me” on something I said. It gives me a chance to say more about it.
And I was. Called on my usage of the word “mission.” I used it in that little video I sent you to describe what we are hoping in and by the power of the Lord at CWP. That video said something like “Bible study as a mission.”
Now, Tresa was not confrontational at all, but eager in wanting to know: She wrote simply, responding to the 1 minute video:
Wow! I can’t wait — I do have a question — define ‘mission’. We at [name of college] Athletics are starting (restarting/improving) on our spiritual emphasis in athletics and our student-athletes – the background for my question — your definition could help me help the student-athlete. Missions is an area we are improving/introducing to the student-athlete – local and abroad. Sounds like exciting times to come– I look forward to finishing the 40 Things and other plans you are working on.
I gave our friend Tresa (whom I don’t know except through this online Bible study) a short reply, but here is a more thorough one in the form of a focused Bible study. I thought that you might appreciate this as well.
Missions can be defined in a variety of ways, but for our purposes at CWP, we are focusing on the classical meaning of the Greek word apostolos—-and this will serve many audiences and situations. Many Christians only see in this term the transliteration “apostle,” and they immediately go to the 12 apostles, or even to some modern day uses among some Christian groups of the word “apostle” as a kind of office or position of respect and rank.
But in ancient classical Greek, OT Greek, and at least Paul, the word “apostle” meant an envoy, an emissary, something or someone sent on behalf of another.
This is especially seen by Paul in 1 Thessalonians (where the CWP Inner Circle will be focusing for about 30 weeks). In 2:7, he refers to himself and his party as “chosen envoys, sent out by Christ himself” – or more literally as, Christou apostoloi “apostles of Christ.” The word “Christ” is placed in emphatic position.
Sailing ships . . . and Kings!
The word apostolos has been the subject of detailed discussion, both for its origins and usage within and outside the NT (see detailed list in BDAG 122; TDNT I:398-447). I do not translate merely, “apostles of Christ,” because the word “apostle” is so well-known in English (through the NT), that it carries its own special baggage which may hinder readers from seeing the deeper significance of the word as used by Paul in reference to himself. At issue, here, is how Paul views himself. Keeping in mind that 1 Thessalonians is likely the first of all documents written that we now have in the NT, we are better to understand that the word apostolos (“one who has been sent on a mission”) would have been understood on the Gentile frontier, not merely through the oral teaching handed down by and about Jesus’ closest followers, but also (1) in terms of the common usages of the noun-verb word-group, and (2) also in terms of those usages in reference to prophets in the (OT) Scriptures.
As to the common usage of the word: The noun apostolos in early Greek (pre- NT) had reference to a naval expedition, ship, or commission, including a letter of authorization for the purpose of sailing ships. It was only occasionally used of people dispatched for specific purposes such as an ambassador, messenger, or delegate of the King. Even so, the verb apostello (“to send”) was widely used in Greek documents related to persons of importance in administration and service. This verb is also used extensively in the Greek OT (LXX) specifically for prophets, and this was certainly one influence of early Christian usage.
For example, various forms of the verb apostello were key terms describing the call and work of OT prophets, as the following quotes show:
Of the Prophet Moses:
- “And now, come, I will send (aposteilo) you to Pharaoh” (Ex 3:10)
- “And here is the sign that I am sending you out (exapostello) (Ex 3:12) (see also for Moses Ex 3:13, 14, 15; 4:28; 7:16; Deut 34:11)
Of Other Prophets:
- “Whom shall I send? (aposteilo); “Send me!” (aposteilon me) (Isa 6:8)
- “I am sending you out (exapostello) to the house of Israel” (Ezek 2:3)
- “Behold, I am sending out (exapostello) my messenger” (Mal 3:1)
- “Behold, I am sending out (exapostello) to you Elijah the Tishbite before the great and glorious day of KURIOS comes.” (Mal 4:5 [3:22 LXX])
- Moses and other prophets are actually called apostles in later writings (see DPL 763a for discussion and references).
- The prophet Jeremiah is particularly significant in this respect. His call by God (Jer 1:4-12) is very significant for understanding Paul in 1 Thessalonians:
And the Word of the Lord (logos kuriou) came to me saying
Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you.
And before you were born, I set you apart (hagiaka – from hagiazo).I destined you as a prophet to the Gentiles (nations)
(propheten eis ethne tetheika se)
And I said, “Oh lord KURIOS (ho despota kurie). I don’t know how to speak (lalein), I am just a young man. And KURIOS said to me, “Don’t be saying, ‘I’m just a young man, because to every place that I send you out (exaposteilo), you shall go; and whatever I command you, you will speak it (laleseis). Do not be afraid to face them because I am with you to rescue you, says KURIOS.
Of Paul as a Prophet:
This call is, of course, reminiscent in several respects of Moses’ call in Exodus (see references above), but also of Paul’s description of his own ministry among the Thessalonians (this will especially be important in Gal 1:15-17). Whatever the explanation for the adoption of the noun-form, apostolos, Paul now uses this term for his own mandate and mission by God. He identifies himself as a special envoy of God sent out for a particular purpose of proclaiming the Saving Message of God. (Now how many applications can you think of for this!) In this respect, he sees himself as no different from the prophets of Scripture who were described using the same terms, having essentially the same kind of call and mission, and facing the same kinds of opponents and struggles. He will also claim to have the same kinds of abilities and responsibilities in receiving and delivering the Word of the Lord. (See 1:6-7; 3:3b-4; 4:15-17; 5:19-22)
So, when I speak of “Bible study as mission” I consider us a ship on an expedition, like people with the charge of speaking on behalf of God and helping others do the same. I realize that “mission” is often used to refer merely to the establishment of churches and the like. But that is a too narrow usage of the concept. Helping people to read the Bible responsibly, contextually, and conversationally is a mission worth exuberant embrace in the larger mission of the proclamation of the Gospel.
So now I ask you . . . what is your mission?